Tips para desarrollos móviles

3/Feb/2010 168

A pasos agigantados avanza el mercado de telefonía móvil, y cada vez son más las empresas que piden proyectos web específicos para que se usen desde teléfonos celulares, o que sus sitios se vean correctamente en ellos. El problema es que, si para escritorio peleamos con una sopa de 6 browsers más comunes –Firefox, Opera, IE6, IE7, IE8 y Safari-Chrome– para móviles es exponencialmente mayor: tenemos browsers diferentes por marca de teléfono y por modelo de las mismas marcas… ¡una locura!

Poner en práctica este tema me ha costado mucho tiempo de documentarme, de pruebas y errores. Si te vas a aventurar en este medio, creo importante que tengas claro algunos puntos y otros que se los transparentes al cliente, todo para evitar posteriores decepciones:

Estudia cada dispositivo, sus fortalezas y limitaciones

Desde que salió el iPhone, se abrió una nueva manera de tratar sitios web para móviles. Se pensaba que con el marcado WML y estilos básicos bastaban, pero Apple demostró que se puede hacer mucho más y mejor en tan poco espacio. Google ofrece mucho con su navegador basado en Webkit, Opera soporta XHTML en su Opera Mini. Es importante que sepas cómo y qué te ofrece cada dispositivo, y eso se lo traspasas a tu cliente.

Trata de hacer versiones para iPhone, smartphones y los que sobran

Básicamente iPhone es el que tiene mayores diferencias en la manera de tratar el código fuente, así que es mejor hacer una versión del sitio sólo para este dispositivo. Agrupa los smartphones (Blackberry, Nokia) y crea una versión con buen HTML y estilos sobrios; cuida que el HTML sea sencillo para el resto de los browsers más limitados (Palm, Windows Mobile). Para detectarlos, te recomiendo un sencillo pero útil script en PHP que hace el trabajo por tí.

Ten cuidado con Blackberry (y Nokia)

He tenido grandes decepciones con las versiones del browser de Blackberry y Nokia: suelen comportarse diferente entre modelos inmediatos, y esas diferencias son sustanciales. Lamentablemente, te recomiendo que uses HTML 4 y CSS1 para asegurarte con todos los modelos de estas marcas.

Deja el comportamiento para el servidor

Si debes validar campos de formularios, déjaselo al servidor y no al browser. Al contrario de iPhone, muchos teléfonos traen Javascript deshabilitados por defecto. No esperes que el usuario los haya habilitado manualmente; si puedes, evítalo.

No confies en los simuladores

Una lástima, pero te recomiendo que le agregues a tu lista de amigos, el modelo y versión de teléfono celular que tiene cada uno para que te ayuden a probar tus desarrollos. Sólo así tendrás certeza del correcto funcionamiento que esperan tú y tu cliente.

Ten mucha, pero mucha paciencia

Si crees que por ser sitios menores te será fácil, te decepcionarás: son muchas más las variables que debes tener presente, y probablemente el esfuerzo será mayor. Planifica muy bien con tu cliente lo que él espera ver e interactuar mediante un móvil, aterrízalo con las limitaciones que encuentres y lleguen a un acuerdo razonable para ambos.


* fotografía meramente ilustrativa.


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