SEO y la web semántica

23/Feb/2007 181

Muy seguido la gente me pregunta sobre cómo hacer que sus sitios aparezcan en los buscadores en los primeros lugares. No existe el santo grial para esto. No existe un botón que lo haga posible. Cada buscador tiene su lógica de indexar sitios, y de agregarle la relevancia que hace que tu información salga en la página 1 o en la oooooooooooooooooooogle. En Chile por lo menos, Google es el que reina entre los buscadores de contenidos Internet. Y el que la gente tiene más interés por salir bien posicionado.

SEO (Search Engine Optimization) es una técnica que debieran manejar todos los webmasters, diseñadores y desarrolladores de sitios web. Corresponden a una serie de consejos que mejoran y facilitan que los buscadores indexen nuestros sitios, cataloguen la información y la muestren coorrepondientemente a lo que queremos ser mostrados. ¿Y porqué me tomo el tiempo para escribir sobre esto en CSSLab? Bueno, uno para que me dejen de preguntar. Paso el link y listo. Dos, porque el uso de XHTML y CSS está directamente relacionado, y tiene gran influencia sobre el tema.

Entendamos cómo funciona en parte el sistema de indexación de Google. La gran revolución que se creó en el medio de búsqueda de contenidos por y para Internet, fue por cómo Google trataba en cuanto a relevancia la información que desplegaba en sus resultados de búsqueda. Mientras Altavista y Yahoo! se esforzaban en mostrar la mayor cantidad de resultados relacionados posible, a Google le interesaba mostrar el mejor y más preciso de acuerdo a los criterios ingresados por el usuario primero. Para esto, utilizaron la lógica que se usa hasta hoy en los textos bibliográficos. Mientras más referencia tenga un libro en otros libros (citas o referencias bibliográficas), eso se traduce en que es un mejor libro sobre el tema que trata. Aplicado a la web, mientras más links externos digiridos a tal o cual sitio, eso quiere decir que la información que se muestra es importante. Si "Televidores Plasma Sony" está linkeado en (por ejemplo) 1.000.000 de sitios, y "Televisores Plasma Sharp" en 200.000, Sony aparece primero que en los resultados de búsqueda de Google. Parece muy lógico, ¿no?. Pues bien, con los años los ingenieros de Google han variado bastante sus mecanismos de búsquedas y de indexación de sitios y páginas web. PageRank, que es el algoritmo que maneja estos factores de criterios, ha sido renovado no pocas veces.

Ahora, a lo nuestro.

Un criterio importante al momento de ser indexado por los buscadores, se refiere a cómo está construído nuestro sitio web. Un código limpio y semántico, muestra la información ordenada, clara y con los significados que implican cada etiqueta HTML, lo que es leído por los spiders e interpretado correctamente. CSS ayuda a que esta información se presente con un estilo adecuado, atractivo, y aporta algunas técnicas que facilitan la diagramación del sitio web. Otros criterios a tomar en cuenta al construir tu sitio web, responde al uso de un tag HTML: META. Esta etiqueta que se ubica en el <head> del código HTML, y aporta una descripción sobre el sitio y palabras claves que relacionadas con nuestra información (entre otras propiedades). A continuación los META tags que debería agregar en CSSLab luego:

<META NAME="description" CONTENT="Un laboratorio de ideas web">
<META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="CSS, XHTML, HTML, sitios web, websites, semántica, javascript, AJAX, recursos web">

Bien, espero haya quedado claro. Ya saben por dónde comenzar a hacer bien las cosas.

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